On the following page, we are going to let you know about the basic concepts of the study of precious stones called GEMOLOGY.

gemology _GIA_ DeAr


It is not only the twinkling fancy jewelry or mesmerizing stones are gems, therefore they are all its example, with no delay let us soon jump into the topic.

hint of gemology_DeAr


Gemology is the branch of mineralogy, It is a science of gems that deals with the study of gemstone occurs naturally and made artificially.

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Its main aim is to identify the gemstone. Which also involves cutting, polishing, and grading the precious stones.

gemology _ DeAr GEOLOGY

"GEMOLOGY" comes from the Latin word gemma which means "GEM" and "LOGY" means "science" (or) "the study of ".


A gem is qualified when they are being cut from naturally occurring crystallines i.e minerals. Minerals are nothing but crystal material with certain chemical composition by the way it occurs naturally but not through any life process.

gemology_ DeAr GEOLOGY

Whereas a rock can be a mixture of different minerals, the studied mineral is called "mineralogy a gem is valued when it is as much tough with a clear and colorful look. It must also be scratch-resistant. A gem must be cut and polished for future use.

gemology_DeAr GEOLOGY

Previously you would have known about the word GEMOLOGY, its origin, meaning, and definition.

Now, Here is some information on GEMSTONES, their occurrence, importance classification, and history.


     With the movement of tectonic plates below each other under great pressure and heat minerals are forced together through which metamorphism occurs in various minerals, sometimes without melting. 


Due to this metamorphism gemstones are formed.

Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks contain gem materials but mostly it is found in the Igneous rocks and maybe in alluvial gravels.


Pegmatite: A intrusive igneous rock type with a sheet-like structure and is coarse-grained. Large gemstones or crystals have been mined in pegmatite.

gemology_DeAr GEOLOGY

Stream gravels: These are eroded out from the original rock and deposit heavily and withstands than other minerals.

gemology_DeAr GEOLOGY
Stream gravels

Metamorphic rocks: These are the rocks that went under great pressure and heat, that transform or form a new type of material.

gemology_DeAr GEOLOGY
Metamorphic rocks

example:-"Granet" found crystals in gneiss and mica schist.


  • These are 2 types of gemstones classified generally called precious and semi-precious gemstones, but we are forward to see the basic types of gemstones.
    gemology_DeAr GEOLOGY

Gems are formed from minerals, rocks, organic or inorganic materials. Here let's see how they are formed.

i)Mineral Gems:This is the largest group of gem-forming minerals with 130 kinds of gems from minerals.

gemology _DeAr GEOLOGY
un-cut emeralds

ex:-Birthstone gem(except the opal), Diamonds, Rubies, Sapphires, and Emeralds.

ii)Organic Gems:The next largest group is the organic gem group. It has gems of structurally strong(IVORY) or Delicate and iridescent (mother of pearl).

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This group contains fossil-based gems (amber) organism-formed gems(pearl, nacre, and ivory). Most used for ornamental carvings and sculptures.

iii)In-Organic Gems :Opal and obsidian are the only two types of inorganic gems.

Obsidian formed as a product of volcanic eruptions,it is black volcanic glass when volcanic lava cools.It is a igneous rocks.Obsidian also has a snowflake inclusions in it called snowflake variety.

Opal is semi-precious gemstone generally,this unusual material is a undefinite form of silica,which means soild-crystal but sometimes it is in a semi liquid phase.

gemology_DeAr GEOLOGY
black-precious opal

iv)Rock Gems :This is the last group, consisting a blue,white and gold pigment stone called "lapislazuli" and A pink, green,white form of granite called "unakite".

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   The scientific study of gemstones is call gemology.It's practioners were called gemologists.It is the foundation for the jewellery industries.This study is the foundation for the artisans,traders,dealers and others who is connected to this industry.

gemology_DeAr GEOLOGY

    The gemological institute of America [GIA] certificate is must for a gem to a attain its quality and authorization of being a gem.They identify and evaluate a gemstone on the basis of their colour,clarity,shape,weight,cut and mesurement.They go through a thorough analysis the gemstone is natural to conform.The most inportant gems is said as Diamond,Emerald,sapphire,Ruby,and Red coral.

IN INDIA : India is a land of tradition and culture.It has a great impact on power beliefs and many sentiments.Industry assosiated with gems and jewelleries are the oldest practice in the country, not just hundreds of years but thousands of years before.It has become the family business over the generations following it in a traditional manner.


Mostly everybody get attarcted to the gems since long time.Gemstones praised but the main aim is to identify it's indeapth beauty.

Here is a short event to witness the popularity of gemstones in India.

  • At the time to srikrishna devarayalu ruling.The kings called nijamudin navab were establishing the city of hyderabad.
  • In Andra pradesh state there was a market of the precious and semi-precious stone,where they used to sell on the ground.Hyderabad is the captial of Andra pradesh on that period and south A.P is called as rayalaseema.This is the place where you can find huge granites and that's what makes it the land gemstone.
  • Great numbers of precious and semi precious stones including granites were used to be exported to various places all around.
  • Rayalaseema is also called a "ratnea Bhoomi" means land of gem[jewel or precious stones].


   A gem itself is a attractive and attention creating material.Now lets see what really special in it.


  • Jadeite belongs to the jade family.It is available in colours of red,black,green,and yellow which is common ,but imperial jade is most wanted with semi-transpart emerald green.
  • In the world this is the highly prized of jadeite.
  • Imperial jade is a type of jade which is most expensive from Burma 
  • It has high quality colour.
  • It is a rock or mineral.
  • This is the very most expensive gem.


  • This mineral is made up of aluminium ,calcium,boron,zirconium and oxygen.
  • Painite is the worlds rarest gemstone mineral.
  • It holds a place guinness book of world records.
  • It is the rarest gemstone and rarest mineral on Earth.
  • In 1950's there exist only two number of crystal specimens for many more decades as hexagonal mineral on the earth.
  • By the year of 2005,there exist only lesser than 25 known gemstones. 
    painite with courndum


Gemology_DeAr GEOLOGY

  • Started in 1931 in Carlsbad, California United States.
  • It is a private non-profit institution that aims at research and education gem and jewelry field.
  • It evaluates the gems and grades the diamond.
  • This is the institution that contributes all the world's gems and diamonds to ensure their value.

It is also located in,

12 countries. 

07 campuses.

04 research centers.

09 grading laboratories.

  • Some of the world's important gemstones are identified by GIA.
  • They dedicatedly work for the trust of the public on gems, their academics, and in this profession.
  • For the accurate determination of diamonds 4C3 [color,clarity,cut,and carat] coloured stones and pearls[7pearl value factors size,shape,color,nacre luster,surface and matching].
  • GIA has created the Global Standards.   

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