Hello everyone, A warm greeting to the readers who are all present here… In this page, we are going to discuss about introduction to geology which helps to get outline of geology.


   James Hutton   

Father of Modern Geology, 1726–1797.

    Definition of Geology:

                 Geology is the study of the solar system plant the Earth, the materials of which it is form, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them. It includes the study of organisms that have inhabited our planet. An important part of geology is the study of how Earth's materials, structures, processes and organisms have changed over time.

    Branches of Geology:

    The field of geology is very large and it is divided into several branches.

    i) Physical Geology- Physical geology is concerned with the work of natural processes which bring about changes upon the earth’s surface.

    ii)Petrology- The discussion of the different kinds of rocks is known as petrology. It deals with the study of composition ,structure and origin of rocks.

    iii)Mineralogy-Mineralogy includes the study of mineral compostion ,structures ,appearance ,stability ,occurrence and associations.

    iv)Structural geology- This branch of geology deals with the study of structure of rocks in the earth’s crust.

    v)Stratigraphy- It is the science of the description , correlation and classification of strata in sedimentary rocks including the interpretation of the depositional environments of those strata.

    vi)Paleontology – paleontology is the science of fossils of ancient life forms and their evolution.

    vii)Historical geology- The study of stratigraphy and paleontology is included under the historical geology. It gives us a picture of the land and seas , the climate and life of early times upon the earth.

    viii)Economic geology–The economic geology deals with the study of minerals, ores and fossil fuels of economic importance.

    ix)Mining geology –This branch of geology is connected with the study of application of geology to mining engineering.

    x)Engineering geology – The engineering geology includes the study of application of geology to civil engineering.

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    Topics  to be covered in geology:

    General Geology: The Solar System, meteorities, origin and interior of the earth. Radioactivity and age of earth; Volcanoes-causes and products, volcanic belts.Earthquakes-causes, effects, earthquake belts, seismicity of India, intensity and magnitude,seismongraphs. Island arcs, deep sea trenches and mid-ocean ridges. Continental drift-evidences and mechanics; sea-floor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy, orogeny and epeirogeny. Continents and oceans.

    Geomorphology and Remote Sensing: Basic concepts of geomorphology.Weathering and mass wasting. Landforms, slopes and drainage. Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation, Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology. Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering, hydrology and environmental studies. Geomorphology of Indian sub-continent.

    Aerial photographs and their interpretationmerits and limitations.The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Orbiting satellites and sensor systems.Indian Remote Sensing Satellites. Satellites data products. Applications of remote sensing in geology.The Geographic Information System and its applications. Global Positioning System.

    Structural geology: Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, projection diagrams, stress andstrain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials. Strain markers in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions. Folds and faults classification and mechanics.Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities. Superposed deformation. Time – relationship between crystallization and deformation. Introduction to petrofabrics.

    Paleontology: Species definition and nomenclature.Megafossils and Microfossils. Modes of preservation of fossils. Different kinds of micro fossils. Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleo-climatic and pale oceanographic studies, Morphology, geological history and evolutionary trend in Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Brachiopoda, Echi-noidea and Anthozoa, Stratigraphic utility of Ammonoidea, Trilobita and Graptoloidea, Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Probo-scidae. Siwalik fauna, Gondwana flora and its importance.

    Stratigraphy and Geology of India: Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships. Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India. Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance. Major boundary problems -Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/ Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/ Pleistocene. Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past. Tectonic framework of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.

    Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology: Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water. Movement of subsurface water, Springs. Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers.Water-bearingcharacteristics of rocks. Ground-water chemistry. Salt water intrusion.Types of wells.Drainage basin morphometry. Exploration for groundwater. Groundwater recharge. Problems and management of groundwater, Rainwater harvesting. Engineering properties of rocks. Geological investigations for dams, tunnels and bridges. Rock as construction material. Alkali-aggregate reaction. Landslides causes, prevention and rehabilitation. Earthquake-resistant structures.

    Mineralogy: Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry. International system of crystallographic notation. Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry. Crystal defects. Elements of xray crystallography. Petrological microscope and accessories. Optical properties of common rock forming minerals. Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals. Physical and chemical characters of rock forming silicate mineral groups. Structural classification of silicates. Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Minerals of the caronate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups.

    Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Generation and crystallisation of magma. Crystallisation of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and diopsidewollastonite- silica systems. Reaction principle. Magmatic differentiation and assimilation. Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks. Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province. Types and agents of metamorphism. Metamorphic grades and zones. Phase rule. Facies of regional and contact metamorphism. ACF and AKF diagrams. Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks. Minerals assemblages, Retrograde metamorphism. Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatities, granulite terrains of India.

    Sedimentology: Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation, diagenesis and lithification, Properties of sediments. Clastic and nonclastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment, Sedimentary facies and provenance. Sedimentary structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their significance. Sedimentary basins of India.

    Economic Geology: Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits. Process of formation of minerals deposits. Controls of ore locallisation. Ore textures and structures, Metallogenic epochs and provinces, Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead, zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals. Deposits of coal and petroleum in India. National Mineral Policy. Conservation and utilization of mineral resources. Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.

    Mining Geology: Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geo-chemical and geo-botanical, Techniques of sampling. Estimation of reserves of ore, Methods of exploration and mining metalic ores, industrial minerals and marine mineral resources. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.

    Geochemistry and Environmental Geology: Cosmic abundance of elements, Composition of the planets and meteorites, Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements, Trace elements, Elements of crystal chemistry – types of chemical bonds, coordination number, Isomorphism and polymorphism, Elementary thermodynamics. Natural hazards-floods, landslides, coastal erosion, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation, Environmental impact of urbanization, open cast mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution,environment protection-legislative measures in India.


    Scope of  Geology

           Geology is of praticail importance to mankind. It pays a very useful part in the search of coal, petroleum and minerals used as atomic fuels. It is directly concerned with the ore minerals, industrial minerals and mining industry .The importance  of geology has also been recognized in the field of civil engineering project, such as water supply, construction of dams, reservoirs, tunnels, bridges, etc.(require geological advice).

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